By Ghazwan Hassan
TIKRIT Iraq (Reuters) – Iraqi government forces battled Sunni rebels for control of the country’s biggest refinery on Thursday as Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki waited for a U.S. response to an appeal for air strikes to beat back the threat to Baghdad.
The sprawling Baiji refinery, 130 miles, north of the capital near Tikrit, was a battlefield as troops loyal to the Shi’ite-led government held off insurgents from the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and its allies who had stormed the perimeter a day earlier, threatening national energy supplies.
A government spokesman said around noon that its forces were in “complete control” but a witness in Baiji said fighting was continuing and ISIL militants were still present.
A day after the government publicly appealed for U.S. air power, there were indications Washington is sceptical of whether that would be effective, given the risk of civilian deaths that could further enrage Iraq’s once dominant Sunni minority.
Regional U.S. allies seemed keen to discourage air strikes.
Turkish Prime Minister Tayyip Erdogan, a NATO ally, said the United States “does not view such attacks positively”, given the risk to civilians – a view some U.S. officials have also expressed. A Saudi source said that Western powers agreed with Riyadh, the main Sunni power in the region, that what was needed was political change, not outside intervention, to heal sectarian division that has widened under Maliki.
Video aired by Al-Arabiya television showed smoke billowing from the plant and the black flag used by ISIL flying from a building. Workers who had been inside the complex, which spreads for miles close to the Tigris river, said Sunni militants seemed to hold most of the compound in early morning and that security forces were concentrated around the refinery’s control room.
The 250-300 remaining staff were evacuated early on Thursday, one of those workers said by telephone. Military helicopters had attacked militant positions overnight, he added.
Baiji, 25 miles, north of Saddam Hussein’s home city of Tikrit, lies squarely in territory captured in the past week by an array of armed Sunni groups, spearheaded by ISIL, which is seeking a new Islamic caliphate in Iraq and Syria. On Tuesday, staff shut down the plant, which makes much of the fuel Iraqis in the north need for both transport and generating electricity.
ISIL, which considers Iraq’s Shi’ite Muslim majority as heretics in league with neighbouring, Shi’ite Iran, has led a Sunni charge across northern Iraq after capturing the major city of Mosul last week as Maliki’s U.S.-armed forces collapsed.
The group’s advance has only been slowed by a regrouped military, Shi’ite militias and other volunteers. But on Tuesday, Sunni fighters took the small town of Mutasim, south of Samarra, giving them the prospect of encircling the city which houses a major Shi’ite shrine. A local police source said security forces withdrew without a fight when dozens of vehicles carrying insurgents converged on Mutasim from three directions.
ISIL, whose leader broke with al Qaeda after accusing the global jihadist movement of being too cautious, has now secured cities and territory in Iraq and Syria, in effect putting it well on the path to establishing its own well-armed enclave that Western countries fear could become a centre for terrorism.
The Iraqi government made public on Wednesday its request for U.S. air strikes, two and half years after U.S. forces ended the nine-year occupation that began by toppling Saddam in 2003.
Washington has given no indication it will agree to attack and some politicians have urged President Barack Obama to insist that Maliki goes as a condition for further U.S. help.
General Martin Dempsey, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, avoided a direct answer when asked by senators whether Washington would accede to the Iraq request.
U.S. officials, speaking on condition of anonymity, said the Iraqi request had included drone strikes and increased surveillance by U.S. drones, which have been flying over Iraq. However, they said, targets for air strikes could be hard to distinguish from civilians among whom ISIL’s men were operating.
Turkish premier Erdogan said: “America, with its current stance and the statements it has made, does not view such attacks positively … Such an operation could result in a serious number of deaths among civilians.”
The Saudi source told Reuters: “No outside interference will be of any benefit,” adding that Washington, France and Britain all agreed with Riyadh that “dialogue and a political solution is the way forward in Iraq”.
There is political pressure in Washington for Maliki to quit, although Obama has not made such a demand public. Several leading figures in Congress have spoken out against the premier, whom Obama has urged to do more to overcome sectarian rifts.
“The Maliki government, candidly, has got to go if you want any reconciliation,” said Dianne Feinstein, one of Obama’s fellow Democrats, who chairs the Senate Intelligence Committee.
Republican senator John McCain urged Obama to “make it make very clear to Maliki that his time is up”.
If the Baiji refinery falls, ISIL and its allies will have access to a large supply of fuel to add to the weaponry and economic resources seized in Mosul and across the north.
An oil ministry official said the loss of Baiji would cause shortages in the north, including the autonomous Kurdish area, but that the impact on Baghdad would be limited – at around 20 percent of supplies – since it was served by other refineries.
Some international oil companies have pulled out foreign workers.
Washington and other Western capitals are trying to save Iraq as a united country by leaning hard on Maliki to reach out to Sunnis, many of whom feel excluded by the Shi’ite parties that have dominated elections since the Sunni Saddam was ousted.
In a televised address on Wednesday, Maliki appealed to tribes, a significant force in Sunni areas, to renounce “those who are killers and criminals who represent foreign agendas”.
But so far Maliki’s government has relied almost entirely on his fellow Shi’ites for support, with officials denouncing Sunni political leaders as traitors. Shi’ite militia – some of which have funding and backing from Iran – have mobilised to halt the Sunni advance, as Baghdad’s million-strong army, built by the United States at a cost of $25 billion, crumbles.
Like the civil war in Syria next door, the new fighting threatens to draw in regional neighbours.
Iranian President Hassan Rouhani made the clearest declaration yet on Wednesday that the Middle East’s main Shi’ite power, which fought a war against Saddam that killed a million people in the 1980s, was prepared to intervene to protect Iraq’s great shrines, visited by millions of Shi’ite pilgrims annually.
A Twitter account regarded as carrying the views of Iran’s Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, posted a comment on Thursday accusing Sunni militants, abetted by Western powers, of trying to “create a war in Muslim world” and appealing to Sunnis and Shi’ites to resist falling into mutual mistrust.
Iraqi troops are holding off Sunni fighters outside Samarra. The fighters have vowed to carry their offensive south to Najaf and Kerbala, seats of Shi’ite Islam since the Middle Ages.
(Additional reporting by Raheem Salman, Ned Parker and Oliver Holmes in Baghdad; Writing by Ned Parker and Alastair Macdonald; Editing by Giles Elgood)